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Evidence for a Young Earth

Evidence for a Young Earth

There are a number of factors which support the theory of a young earth. Dr. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D., ICR associate professor of physics, in his article “Evidence for a Young World” cites “fourteen natural phenomena which conflict with the evolutionary idea that the universe is billions of years old. The following are excerpts from his article.

1. “Galaxies wind themselves up too fast. The stars of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, rotate about the galactic center with different speeds, the inner ones rotating faster than the outer ones. The observed rotation speeds are so fast that if our galaxy were more than a few hundred million years old, it would be a featureless disc of stars instead of its present spiral shape. Yet our galaxy is supposed to be at least 10 billion years old. Evolutionists call this “the winding-up dilemma,” which they have known about for fifty years.”

2. “Too few supernova remnants. “According to astronomical observations, galaxies like our own experience about one supernova (a violently-exploding star) every 25 years. The gas and dust remnants from such explosions (like the Crab Nebula) expand outward rapidly and should remain visible for over a million years. Yet the nearby parts of our galaxy in which we could observe such gas and dust shells contain only about 200 supernova remnants. That number is consistent with only about 7,000 years worth of supernovas…”

3. “Comets disintegrate too quickly. According to evolutionary theory, comets are supposed to be the same age as the solar system, about five billion years. Yet each time a comet orbits close to the sun, it loses so much of its material that it could not survive much longer than about 100,000 years…”

4. “Not enough mud on the sea floor. Each year, water and winds erode about 20 billion tons of dirt and rock from the continents and deposit it in the ocean. This material accumulates as loose sediment on the hard basaltic (lava-formed) rock of the ocean floor. The average depth of all the sediment in the whole ocean is less than 400 meters. The main way known to remove the sediment from the ocean floor is by plate tectonic subduction. That is, sea floor slides slowly (a few cm/year) beneath the continents, taking some sediment with it. According to secular scientific literature, that process presently removes only 1 billion tons per year. As far as anyone knows, the other 19 billion tons per year simply accumulate. At that rate, erosion would deposit the present mass of sediment in less than 12 million years…”

5. “Not enough sodium in the sea. Every year, rivers and other sources dump over 450 million tons of sodium into the ocean. Only 27% of this sodium manages to get back out of the sea each year. As far as anyone knows, the remainder simply accumulates in the ocean. If the sea had no sodium to start with, it would have accumulated its present amount in less than 42 million years at today’s input and output rates…”

6. “The earth’s magnetic field is decaying too fast. The total energy stored in the earth’s magnetic field (“dipole” and “non-dipole”) is decreasing with a half-life of 1,465 (± 165) years.12 Evolutionary theories explaining this rapid decrease, as well as how the earth could have maintained its magnetic field for billions of years are very complex and inadequate. A much better creationist theory exists. It is straightforward, based on sound physics, and explains many features of the field: its creation, rapid reversals during the Genesis flood, surface intensity decreases and increases until the time of Christ, and a steady decay since then…”

7. “Many strata are too tightly bent. In many mountainous areas, strata thousands of feet thick are bent and folded into hairpin shapes. The conventional geologic time scale says these formations were deeply buried and solidified for hundreds of millions of years before they were bent. Yet the folding occurred without cracking, with radii so small that the entire formation had to be still wet and unsolidified when the bending occurred. This implies that the folding occurred less than thousands of years after deposition.”

8. “Biological material decays too fast. Natural radioactivity, mutations, and decay degrade DNA and other biological material rapidly. Measurements of the mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA recently forced researchers to revise the age of “mitochondrial Eve” from a theorized 200,000 years down to possibly as low as 6,000 years. DNA experts insist that DNA cannot exist in natural environments longer than 10,000 years, yet intact strands of DNA appear to have been recovered from fossils allegedly much older: Neandertal bones, insects in amber, and even from dinosaur fossils. Bacteria allegedly 250 million years old apparently have been revived with no DNA damage. Soft tissue and blood cells from a dinosaur have astonished experts.”

9. “Fossil radioactivity shortens geologic “ages” to a few years. Radiohalos are rings of color formed around microscopic bits of radioactive minerals in rock crystals. They are fossil evidence of radioactive decay. ‘Squashed’ Polonium-210 radiohalos indicate that Jurassic, Triassic, and Eocene formations in the Colorado plateau were deposited within months of one another, not hundreds of millions of years apart as required by the conventional time scale. ‘Orphan’ Polonium-218 radiohalos, having no evidence of their mother elements, imply accelerated nuclear decay and very rapid formation of associated minerals.”

10. “Too much helium in minerals. Uranium and thorium generate helium atoms as they decay to lead. A study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research showed that such helium produced in zircon crystals in deep, hot Precambrian granitic rock has not had time to escape. Though the rocks contain 1.5 billion years worth of nuclear decay products, newly-measured rates of helium loss from zircon show that the helium has been leaking for only 6,000 (± 2000) years. This is not only evidence for the youth of the earth, but also for episodes of greatly accelerated decay rates of long half-life nuclei within thousands of years ago, compressing radioisotope timescales enormously.”

11. “Too much carbon 14 in deep geologic strata. With their short 5,700 year half-life, no carbon 14 atoms should exist in any carbon older than 250,000 years. Yet it has proven impossible to find any natural source of carbon below Pleistocene (Ice Age) strata that does not contain significant amounts of carbon 14, even though such strata are supposed to be millions or billions of years old. Conventional carbon 14 laboratories have been aware of this anomaly since the early 1980s, have striven to eliminate it, and are unable to account for it. Lately the world’s best such laboratory which has learned during two decades of low-C14 measurements how not to contaminate specimens externally, under contract to creationists, confirmed such observations for coal samples and even for a dozen diamonds, which cannot be contaminated in situ with recent carbon. These constitute very strong evidence that the earth is only thousands, not billions, of years old.”

12. “Not enough Stone Age skeletons. Evolutionary anthropologists now say that Homo sapiens existed for at least 185,000 years before agriculture began, during which time the world population of humans was roughly constant, between one and ten million. All that time they were burying their dead, often with artifacts. By that scenario, they would have buried at least eight billion bodies. If the evolutionary time scale is correct, buried bones should be able to last for much longer than 200,000 years, so many of the supposed eight billion stone age skeletons should still be around (and certainly the buried artifacts). Yet only a few thousand have been found. This implies that the Stone Age was much shorter than evolutionists think, perhaps only a few hundred years in many areas.”

13. “Agriculture is too recent. The usual evolutionary picture has men existing as hunters and gatherers for 185,000 years during the Stone Age before discovering agriculture less than 10,000 years ago. Yet the archaeological evidence shows that Stone Age men were as intelligent as we are. It is very improbable that none of the eight billion people mentioned in item 12 should discover that plants grow from seeds. It is more likely that men were without agriculture for a very short time after the Flood, if at all.”

14. “History is too short. According to evolutionists, Stone Age Homo sapiens existed for 190,000 years before beginning to make written records about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. Prehistoric man built megalithic monuments, made beautiful cave paintings, and kept records of lunar phases. Why would he wait two thousand centuries before using the same skills to record history? The Biblical time scale is much more likely.”

The above excerpts were taken from Answers In Genesis web site.

For those who want to a deeper study, please visit the web site for the author’s references and support.

The Institute for Creation Research in their booklet Impact No. 110, gives the following additional arguments, for of a young earth which I find interesting.

The author is the late physicist, Dr. Thomas G. Barnes.

1. Receding Moon

It takes but one proof of a young age for the moon or the earth to completely refute the doctrine of evolution. Based upon reasonable postulates, great scope of observational data, and fundamental laws of physics there is proof that the moon and the earth are too young for the presumed evolution to have taken place.”

“There is an easily understood physical proof that the moon is too young for the presumed evolutionary age. From the laws of physics one can show that the moon should be receding from the earth. From the same laws one can show that the moon would have never survived a nearness to the earth of less than 11,500 miles. That distance is known as Roche limit. The tidal forces of the earth on a satellite of the moon’s dimensions would break up the satellite into something like the rings of Saturn. Hence the receding moon was never that close to the earth.”

“The present speed of recession of the moon is known. If one multiplies this recession speed by the resumed evolutionary age; the moon would be much farther, away from the earth than it is; even if it had started from the earth. It could not have been receding for anything like the age demanded by the doctrine of evolution. There is as yet no tenable alternative explanation that will yield an evolutionary age of 4 billion years or more for the moon. Here is as simple a proof as science can provide that the moon is not as old as claimed.”

“How does an evolutionist reconcile this proof that the moon is too young for the presumed evolution to have taken place? This known dynamical limit in the earth moon system is a great problem to knowledgeable evolutionists. Robert C. Humes in his book Introduction to Space Science (John Wiley, 1971) acknowledge the problem and states that ‘the whole subject of the origin of the moon must be regarded as highly speculative.’ Dr. Louis B. Slichter, Professor of Geophysics at Massachusetts institute of Technology treats this problem in great detail and concludes that ‘the time scale of the earth-moon system still presents a major problem.'”

“It turns out that the earth-moon tidal friction causes the earth’s spin rate to be slowing down. Lord Kelvin used that changing spin rate, assumed an initial and molten earth, and proved that the earth could not be a billion years old, or the earth’s present shape would be different.”

“Hence from theoretical and observational considerations there are two proofs that the earth moon system cannot be as old as a billion years. 1) The earth moon spacing and recession rate refutes that long age. 2) The shape of the earth refutes that long age.”

2. Lunar Dust Depth.

“The prelunar landing predictions of evolutionary scientists gave great concern to the astronauts. Their predictions were that due to a presumed 4.5 billion year age of the moon and the rate of influx of dust and the lunar physical processes of rock break-up, the astronauts might be lost in a great depth of dust on the moon. Fortunately, the evolutionary predictions of great dust on the moon were wrong. Our astronauts were not lost in the predicted “quicksand” of age-accumulated dust on the moon. The creationist predictions of only a thin layer of dust were correct.”

“This false prediction from evolutionary scientist lends support to the author’s contention that the doctrine of evolution is a barrier to progress in science. Additional support from that contention can be found in the continual negative results of the evolutionary experiments to detect the presumed “evolved life forms” in space. Apparently one of the astronauts considered the lunar receiving laboratory to be a waste of time and money. To disprove the notion of evolved bacteria on the moon he offered to eat some of that dust. One should carefully note that the great successes of NASA space program, of which we are all proud, were made possible by the tremendous advances in technology, not by evolutionary science. That technology is founded upon the proven laws of physics and chemistry and ingenious developments from the various fields of engineering.”

3. Radiometric Evidence of Rapid Creation

“Dr. Robert V. Gentry has radiometric evidence that the basement rock of the earth was formed in a cool state, not in a molten condition. A cool initial state of the earth gives support to a young age for the earth. His research involves the study of pleochroic halos (colored spheres) produced by the radioactive decay of Polonium 218. He analyzed over one hundred thousand of these halos in granitic rocks which had been taken from considerable depths below land surface and in all parts of the world.”

“Two very important conclusions were drawn from this research. 1) The Polonium 216 was primordial, that is to say, this radioactive element was in the original granite. 2) Because the halos can only be formed in the crystals of the granite, and the Polonium 218 half-life is only 3 minutes, the granite had to be cool and crystallized originally. The Polonium 218 would have been gone before molten granite could have cooled. It would take a very long time for a molten earth to cool.”

“The final conclusion can be summarized in this brief quote from one of Gentry’s technical papers. ‘The simple evidence of the halos is that the basement rocks of the earth were formed solid.’ Halos in other minerals can be shown to give equally startling evidence of a young earth.”

“One needs to read some of Gentry’s technical articles to see how clearly he established his conclusion that the Polonium 218 was primordial. That in itself presents problems to conventional radiometric dating. The conventional radiometric dating postulates would not jibe with this initial state which Gentry has identified.”

4. Magnetic Evidence of a Young Earth

“The known decay in the earth’s magnetic field and the inexorable depletion of its energy clearly point to an imminent and inevitable end of the earth’s magnetic field. A Department of Commerce publication lists evaluations of the strength of earth’s dipole magnet (its main magnet) since Karl Gauss made the first evaluation in the 1830’s. It states that the rate of decrease is about 5% per hundred years. It then states that if the decay continues the magnetic field will “vanish in A.D. 3991”.

“This decay has some harmful environmental effects. The earth’s magnetic field extends into the space around the earth. This provides a protective shield against cosmic rays and solar wind. The half-life of this decaying magnetic field is 1400 years (meaning that every 1400 years its strength is cut in half). The field strength is now only about one third as strong as it was at the time of Christ. More harmful radiation is penetrating down to the surface of the earth. This is an irreversible degradation.”

“Horace Lamb predicted this decay in an 1883 theoretical paper on the source of the earth’s magnetic field. Looking backward in time, in the light of his theory and the present known decay rate, and assuming the maximum plausible initial strength, puts an age limit on the earth’s magnet of only a few thousand years.”

“Evolutionary geologists assume that there is some type of dynamo mechanism sustaining the earth’s magnet. No one has yet come up with an acceptable theory for such a dynamo. That mechanism is supposed to be able to reverse the direction of the earth’s magnet. They assume that this magnet has not been decaying continually but has reversed back and forth man times for billions of years. They must hold to a long age or it is the death knell of the whole theory of evolution. Reversal phenomena are ‘read’ into the magnetization of accessible rocks to the crust of the earth. The literature shows real problems and some self contradictions with those interpretations.”

Conclusion

“The recession rate of the moon cannot be as old as required in the doctrine of evolution, as has been shown when the great laws of physics are applied to observed large scale phenomena.”

Source: Copied from: Impact No. 110, Institute for Creation Research. Now out of print.