Double Prophecy and Shadows


Double Prophecy can also be defined as a dual fulfillment of the first prophecy. In this case, the first prophecy is a shadow of the second.

The doctrine of dual fulfillment has, over time, been very controversial. Many scholars have debated it. The interpretation of some Scripture may have caused some of the problems. Also, some church groups apply the term to doctrines, which has an entirely different meaning.

Wikipedia defines a double prophecy as follows: “The dual fulfilment of prophecy (British English) or dual fulfillment (American English) or dual prophecy or duality in prophecy or present and future application is the mainly Christian idea that some prophecies in the Bible have both a short-term and long-term fulfillment” (

“The following terms are used interchangeably with “double reference” and may be understood to stand for any or all of the parts of the law: Near and Far View, Double Sense, Multiple Fulfillment, Gap Prophecy, Foreshortening, and several others” (Google).

Remember that not all examples of dual fulfillment of prophecy are valid.  I am providing two examples below, which are types and/or shadows. The first fits the definition of types and shadows. The second may also be a double prophecy.

King Antiochus IV Epiphanes and The Antichrist

During the sixth century BEC, the prophet Daniel wrote about the future reign of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes and the future Antichrist in the eleventh chapter of Daniel. The prophecy relating to Epiphanes is recorded in Daniel 11:21-35, and the prophecy about the Antichrist is recorded in Daniel 11:36-45 – they almost read as if Daniel is speaking about the same man. However, the prophecy is about two different men separated by many years. Epiphanes reign from 175 to 164 BC. The reign of the Antichrist is still future, as recorded in the Book of Revelations.

Chapter eleven does not call the man the Antichrist but describes a man with all the characteristics of the Antichrist as described In Daniel chapter twelve and the Book of Revelations. Both men were prophesied to desecrate the Jewish Temple – called “the abomination of desolation” by Jesus in the Olivet Discourse in Matthew chapter 24. 

“Therefore, when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place” (Matt. 24:15, NKJV). Here Jesus refers to the future Antichrist’s desecration of the Jewish Temple.

Epiphanes desecrated the temple by sacrificing a pig on the Jewish altar. So, likewise, the Antichrist will desecrate the Temple by making it his headquarters.

The above two prophecies cannot be called a “dual fulfillment” because we see two different prophecies applied to one event – the desecration of the Jewish Temple.  However, it appears that the first prophecy is a shadow of the second and that Epiphanes is a type of the Antichrist.

Let us look at Daniel’s writing about Epiphanes (the King of the North). “And in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they will not give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue (Daniel 11:21, NKJV).

“And forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation [a pig]. Those who do wickedly against the covenant he shall corrupt with flattery; but the people who know their God shall be strong, and carry out great exploits. And those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet for many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plundering. Now when they fall, they shall be aided with a little help; but many shall join with them by intrigue. And some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them, purify them, and make them white, until the time of the end; because it is still for the appointed time. (Daniel 11:31-35, NKJV).

Now let us look at the history of Epiphanes. The following is a quote from: “Antiquities of the Jews” (Vol X11, Chapter five of Works of Josephus)

 “Now it came to pass, after two years, in the hundred forty and fifth year, on the twenty-fifth day of that month which is by us called Chasleu, and by the Macedonians Apelleus, in the hundred and fifty-third Olympiad, that the king came up to Jerusalem, and, pretending peace, he got possession of the city by treachery; at which time he spared not so much as those that admitted him into it, on account of the riches that lay in the temple; but, led by his covetous inclination, (for he saw there was in it a great deal of gold, and many ornaments that had been dedicated to it of very great value,) and in order to plunder its wealth, he ventured to break the league he had made. So he left the temple bare, and took away the golden candlesticks, and the golden altar [of incense], and table [of shew-bread], and the altar [of burnt-offering]; and did not abstain from even the veils, which were made of fine linen and scarlet. He also emptied it of its secret treasures, and left nothing at all remaining; and by this means cast the Jews into great lamentation, for he forbade them to offer those daily sacrifices which they used to offer to God, according to the law.”

“And when the king had built an idol altar upon God’s altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country.”

”He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to adore those whom he took to be gods; and made them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and offer swine upon them every day. He also commanded them not to circumcise their sons, and threatened to punish any that should be found to have transgressed his injunction. He also appointed overseers, who should compel them to do what he commanded. And indeed many Jews there were who complied with the king’s commands, either voluntarily, or out of fear of the penalty that was denounced.”

The Biblical Archaeological Society has a good article on the web about the history of Epiphanes. To read it, click “Epiphanes.”

The following quotes about the Antichrist are from Daniel chapters eleven and twelve. As noted above, it reads as if it is the same man.

“Then the king shall do according to his own will: he shall exalt and magnify himself above every god, shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath has been accomplished; for what has been determined shall be done. He shall regard neither the God of his fathers nor the desire of women, nor regard any god; for he shall exalt himself above them all. But in their place he shall honor a god of fortresses; and a god which his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and pleasant things. Thus he shall act against the strongest fortresses with a foreign god, which he shall acknowledge, and advance its glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and divide the land for gain” (Dan. 11:36-39, NKJV).

We need to note that chapter twelve continues the narrative.

“At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered” (Dan. 12:1, NKJV).

 “Then I, Daniel, looked, and there before me stood two others, one on this bank of the river and one on the opposite bank. One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, ‘How long will it be before these astonishing things are fulfilled? The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, lifted his right hand and his left hand toward heaven, and I heard him swear by him who lives forever, saying, ‘It will be for a time, times and half a time. When the power of the holy people has been finally broken, all these things will be completed’’” (Dan. 12:5-7, NKJV).

“Although I heard, I did not understand. Then I said, ‘My lord, what shall be the end of these things?’ And he said, ‘Go your way, Daniel, for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. Many shall be purified, made white, and refined, but the wicked shall do wickedly; and none of the wicked shall understand, but the wise shall understand. ‘And from the time that the daily sacrifice is taken away, and the abomination of desolation is set up, there shall be one thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he who waits, and comes to the one thousand three hundred and thirty-five days’” (Dan. 12:8-12, NKJV).

If you do the math, the above numbers are the same as three and one-half years based on the Jewish calendar. In the Book of Revelation, we read that the last three and one-half years of the Tribulation is called “The Great Tribulation,” where the Antichrist will rule from the Jewish Temple.

The Millennial Kingdom and the Eternal Kingdom

Many of the Millennial Kingdom’s details are presented in the book of Isaiah – chapters eleven, sixty, and others. So perhaps we have some double prophecies relating to the Millennial Kingdom (kingdom on earth) and the Eternal Kingdom (kingdom in the new heaven).

If any case, the Millennial Kingdom is a shadow of the Eternal Kingdom in the New Heaven.

I have always wondered who will be on the New Earth. The ones on the New Earth can go back and forth between the New Earth and the New Jerusalem. We read this from the New Jerusalem verses: “The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp. The nations [Gentiles] will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there will be no night there. The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it” (Rev. 21:23-26), NIV).  In the Old Testament, the word “nations” always refers to the Gentile Nations. 

The above verses seem similar to a millennial prophecy in Isaiah, “Foreigners will rebuild your walls, and their kings will serve you. Though in anger I struck you, in favor I will show you compassion. Your gates will always stand open, they will never be shut, day or night, so that people may bring you the wealth of the nations – their kings led in triumphal procession. For the nation or kingdom that will not serve you will perish; it will be utterly ruined” (Isa. 60:10-12, NIV). 

These verses make it clear that salvation will come to the Gentiles and that the Gentiles will serve the Jews in the last days. We have applied this verse to the Millennial Kingdom, but it may have an application on the New Earth. Notice that the gates will be open in both scriptural references, and the nations will enter. Since we know that some Gentiles will be saved outside of The Church, perhaps these Gentiles will live on the New Earth.

Many believe that the Jews will inherit the New Earth. Perhaps both Jews and Gentiles will occupy the New Earth – going back and forth between the New Earth and New Jerusalem.


Is the place called Zion also a double prophecy?

The prophet Isaiah wrote, “And the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with singing, with everlasting joy on their heads. They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away (Isa. 35:10, NKJV).

Zion has always been considered the highest point in the earthly Jerusalem. Therefore, the above verse is a prophecy about the earthly Millennial Kingdom.

Now let us look at a verse from the Book of Hebrews. “But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels” (Heb. 12:22, NKJV).

This verse describes a place in heaven – perhaps the New Jerusalem. There is some evidence that the New Jerusalem is a huge mountain with the Throne of God on its highest peak. We read of a river flowing from The Throne down the streets of the New Jerusalem.

Therefore, the Zion on earth would be a type or shadow of the Zion in heaven. Perhaps I am right, or maybe I am wrong.

God’s Holy Mountain

The Bible also speaks about “The Mountain of God”. In the Psalms, we read about a very special mountain.

“Why do you fume with envy, you mountains of many peaks? This is the mountain which God desires to dwell in; Yes, the Lord will dwell in it forever” (Ps. 68:16, NKJV).

Some Bible teachers see this mountain as being at various places. It may reference Zion in Jerusalem, Mount Sinai and other mountains. What is interesting is the last part, “Yes, the LORD will dwell in it forever.” We must keep in mind that this earth is going to be destroyed by fire. Therefore, the verse must apply to an eternal mountain – maybe the one in the New Jerusalem.

It appears that God speaks to the people from mountains. He spoke to Moses from the top of Mount Sinai. Jesus liked to preach from the top of mountains. It was on a mountain that Jesus was transfigured and God spoke to Peter, James and John. However, the verse quoted above appears to be in heaven. Perhaps it is referring to a place in the earthly Jerusalem and the heavenly Jerusalem.

The following are several Biblical references to God’s holy mountain: Ezek. 28:14, Joel 3:17, Isa. 2:2, Isa. 57:13, Isa. 11:9, Ps. 132:13-14, Zech. 8:3, and 2 Pet. 1:17-18.

Is this a dual fulfillment or a double prophecy? Does the verse refer to a mountain on this earth and also in heaven?

The Animals

What above the animals? We read in the Book of Isaiah about them.

A most exciting aspect of the Millennium will be our relationship with the animal kingdom.

 “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play by the cobra’s hole, And the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper’s den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord As the waters cover the sea” (Isa 11:6-9, NKJV).

Our relationship with the animal kingdom is one of the most exciting aspects of this dispensation.

In the Book of Hosea, we read about a covenant God will make with the animals. “In that day I will make a covenant for them With the beasts of the field, With the birds of the air, And with the creeping things of the ground. Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, To make them lie down safely” (Hos. 2:18, NKJV).

Does the prophecy about the animals during the Millennium also apply to the animals in heaven?

Scripture quotations marked NKJV are taken from the New King James Version of the Bible, copyright © 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked NIV are taken from The Holy Bible, New International Version® NIV® 2011 by Zondervan Corporation.  Used by permission. All rights reserved. Used with permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

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